Extreme Psychiatric Treatment

In ancient times to heal people who have mental disorders, the psychiatrists do a very frightening medical act. After going through a period of mental illness is considered a demon possession, doctors conduct research and find that mental disorders experienced by many people who have problems in the brain. One of them is by doing psychosurgery called lobotomy.

At first, the onset of psychosurgery was discovered in the last decade in the 19th century. At that time the field of science began to find out that human thoughts and behavior can be mapped through brain anatomical features. The study was developed in Germany. A scientist named Friederich Golz discovered the theory after experimenting with a neocortical surgical ablation in dogs in 1890. From the experiment it was found that when the dog's temporal lobe is removed, the dog becomes better and quieter than before the surgery.

The results immediately spread to various regions and countries, thus inspiring a Swiss hospital doctor named Gottlieb Burkhardt to perform the operation in his patients. At that time the Swiss psychiatric hospital was filled with patients suffering from high hallucinations of schizophrenia and became extremely agitated. After the surgery, it is true that some patients become more completely calm after surgery. However, there are also patients who eventually died after the surgery. What Burkhardt did was opposed by many parties, especially by the medical authorities at the time, so this kind of psychosurgeries was prohobited.
However, the situation began to change after four decades. There were studies in the United States at the time that there was a very important role in the temporal and frontal cortex against behavioral, emotional and aggressive controls in humans. As was done at Yale University, in 1935. Carlyle Jacobsen, a scientist who made observations on the behavior of chimpanzees in the frontal and prefontal parts have been deleted by lobotomy. As a result the chimpanzee became more calm than before operation. This happens because the chimpanzees lose mental functions such as memory and intelligence. From this research, the lobotomy began to be supported back in the medical world.

Several years later almost all hospitals in the United States undertook such methods to treat patients. Many lobotomy methods have been performed, but the most famous lobotomy method is performed by Walter Freeman, a fairly ambitious neurosurgeon in developing lobotomy methods. Like entering a leucotome after making an opening on the orbital roof of an eye called "Ice Lobotomy." The operation is performed using a tool commonly used to break ice.

The procedure is growing. But as it progresses, the procedure becomes abused by doing on the removal of undesirable behavior. As in Japan that methode use on children who are considered naughty and do not want to follow the rules. In addition, in some countries the procedure is also mostly done on mad prisoners and wealthy families to get rid of stressful family members, and also become a political weapon for the rebels who do not want to follow the rule of the government at that time.

The more abuses perpetrated, then in 1950 the method began to be widely opposed. A lot of research held to review the truth of the lobotomy. After much research was done, it was found that there was no natural benefit from the lobotomy procedure. In America there is a project called Columbia-Greystone failing to prove the positive effect of the lobotomy procedure. Since then, the lobotomy procedure was abolished and many surgeons and psychiatrists used more human methods in the treatment of patients.

However, in some countries such as Australia, Japan, Sweden and India still use the method as a form of control of radicalism and violent behavior.

For those of you who are still curious about the lobotomy method, you can see it in Hollywood movies that are closely related to mental disorders, namely titled Stonehearts Asylum. In the film is described in a similar way how the healing procedures of mental disorders are done. In addition you can also see about the image of a mental hospital background of 1899.

Jack D. Pressman - The last resort: psychosurgery and the limits of medicine
Renato M.E. Sabbatini, PhD - The History of Psychosurgery
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