Synthesis and Binding of Mannose-Specific Synthetic Carbohydrate Receptors


Synthetic Carbohydrate receptors (SCRs) that selectively recognize cell-surface glycans could be used for detection, drug delivery, or as therapeutics. Here we report the synthesis of seven new C2h symmetric tetrapodal SCRs. The structures of these SCRs possess a conserved biaryl core, and they vary in the four heterocyclic binding groups that are linked to the biaryl core via secondary amines. Supramolecular association between these SCRs and 5 biologically relevant C1-O-octyloxy glycans, α/β-glucoside (α/β-Glc), α/β-mannoside (α/β-Man), and β-galactoside (β- Gal), was studied by mass spectrometry, 1H NMR titrations, and molecular modeling. These 

studies revealed that selectivity can be achieved in these tetrapodal SCRs by varying the heterocyclic binding group. We found that SCR017 (3-pyrrole), SCR021 (3-pyridine), and SCR022 (2-phenol) bind only to β-Glc. SCR019 (3-indole) binds only to β-Man. SCR020 (2-pyridine) binds β-Man and α-Man with a preference to the latter. SCR018 (2-indole) binds α-Man and β-Gal with a preference to the former. The glycan guests bound within their SCR hosts in one of three supramolecular geometries: center-parallel, center perpendicular, and off-center. Many host•guest combinations formed higher stoichiometry complexes, 2:1 glycan•SCR or 1:2 glycan•SCR, where the former are driven by positive allosteric cooperativity induced by glycanglycan contacts.

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