What are the speed limits of quantum computers?


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Over the past five decades, standard computer processors have become increasingly fast, but the limits of this technology have become apparent in recent years. Chip components that can only be very small and precisely compressed can not be squeezed or thinner than they are otherwise entangled or electrically entangled 
If businesses want to continue building computers faster than ever, they will need to change something.
The key to hope for the future of fast-paced computing is quantum physics. Quantum computers are expected to be much faster than anything developed in the information age so far, but recent research - research by author Sebastian Deffner, assistant professor of physics at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County - revealed that quantum computers have their own limits, and suggested research ways to know those limits.

Limitations of understanding

For physicists, we humans live in the so-called "classical world." Most people call it the "world" only and understand physics by itself, throwing the ball high and then returning it down in a predictable arc, for example.
Even in more complex situations, humans have a simple understanding of how things work. Most people realize that a car works by burning gasoline in an internal combustion engine - or extracting stored electricity from a battery - to produce energy that is transported through gears and axes to rotate tires And move the car forward.
Under the laws of classical physics, there are theoretical limits to these processes but they are too far away. For example, we know that a car can never move faster than the speed of light. No matter how much fuel is on the planet, Not having a car can approach a speed of up to 10 percent of the speed of light.
People do not really encounter the actual physical boundaries of the world, but they exist, and with appropriate research, physicists can recognize them, though, until recently scientists had only a somewhat vague idea of ​​the existence of quantum physics boundaries as well. But they did not know how to apply them in the real world.

The theory of ribbons of Heisenberg

When someone casts a ball, for example, it is easy to locate the ball and how fast it is when moving.
But, as Heisenberg has shown, this is not possible for atoms and subatomic particles. The observer can determine either their location or how fast they move, but it is not possible to determine precisely the two.
It is a disturbing discovery, since Heisenberg explained his idea, Albert Einstein - among others - was distressed by it.
It is important to realize that the cause of quantum uncertainty is not because of the lack of measuring or engineering equipment, but rather how our brains work. Our minds have evolved to understand how the "classical world" works, whereas the actual physical mechanisms of the quantum world simply exceed our ability to Full understanding.

Enter Quantum World

If there is something in the quantum world that travels from one place to another, researchers can not measure when it starts or when it will arrive exactly. The limits of physics impose a small delay to detect this. No matter how fast the movement takes place, A little late.
The lengths of time here are unbelievably small - Quadrillion of a second or a million billionth of a second - but they add more than trillions of computer accounts.
This delay effectively slows down the potential velocity of the quantitative calculation, which imposes what we call a "quantitative velocity limit."
Over the past few years, research has shown how to determine this maximum quantum velocity in different conditions, such as the use of different types of materials in different magnetic and electrical fields. For each of these cases, there is a maximum quantum velocity higher or slightly lower.
The big surprise for all is that we have found unexpected factors that can sometimes help speed things up in intuitive ways.
To understand this idea, imagine particles moving through water. When particles move, they move water molecules with them, and after the particles move, the water molecules quickly flow back where they are, leaving no trace of particle passage.
Now imagine that the particle itself moves through honey, honey has a viscosity higher than water - it is thicker and flows more slowly - so the honey molecules take longer to return again after the particles move.
In the quantum world, however, the return flow of honey can build a pressure pushing the quantum particle forward. This excess acceleration can make the maximum velocity of quantum particles different from what the observer might expect.

Design of quantum computers

The more the researchers understand more about this speed limit, the more it affects how the design of computer processors is quantified. As engineers have discovered how to reduce the size of transistors and pack them together closely on a conventional computer chip, they will need some smart innovations to build the fastest quantum systems, Works near the maximum speed limit.
There is still a lot of researchers to explore, it is not clear whether the speed limit is too high to achieve, such as a car that will never approach the speed of light.
We do not fully understand how unforeseen elements in the environment - like honey in the example - can help accelerate quantum processes. When the proliferation of technologies based on quantum physics increases, we will need to learn more about the limits of quantum physics and how to engineer the systems that will benefit from what we know.

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